A virus is a small infectious agent(they are so small that a microscope is necessary to see them) that can only live and replicate within a host organism (a living cell). A virus has a very simple structure. When a virus particle is independent of its host, it consists of a viral genome or genetic material contained within a protein shell. However viral replication process begins when a virus infects its host by attaching to the host cell and penetrating the cell wall or membrane. The virus’s genome is uncoated from the protein and injected into the host cell. The gnome hijacks the host’s cell’s machinery, forcing it to replicate the viral genome and produce viral proteins, Then, the viral particles are assembled into new viruses. The new viruses burst out of the host cell and kill the host cell. When the replication continues the new virus can go onto infect new hosts, There are thousands of viruses, for example, the common cold and flu are viruses, Ebola, HIV, and COVID-19. Viral infections can sometimes be minor but they can be severe on older people and those with weakened immune systems.
Any virus can lead to sepsis. Sepsis is the body’s extreme reaction to infection. The body attacks its own organs and tissues, which can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death.
Symptoms can be many and different.
- Nausea and vomiting
- Fever and Aches
- A runny nose
- A sore throat
Viral sepsis can impact anyone–young or old, sick, or healthy. Those with an increased risk of infection include:
- People with chronic illnesses such as diabetes
- Those with weakened immune systems
- The elderly
Viral infection and sepsis is diagnosed by a medical professional following a physical examination, evaluation of medical history, and blood tests and cultures. Some common viral infections such as measles, rubella, and chickenpox may be diagnosed based on symptoms. Laboratory diagnosis is very important to distinguish between viruses that have similar symptoms such as COVID-19 and influenza.
There are no specific treatments of symptoms for a viral infection however many things can help relieve certain symptoms such as giving plenty of fluids, antidiarrheal drug, clear liquid diet, nasal decongestants and throat numbing lozenges. Antiviral medications have become available to treat some viral diseases such as herpes simplex.
The best way to prevent viral infections is vaccination, which involves the administration of a vaccine made of inactive viral particles to an unaffected individual in order to increase the persons’ immunity to the disease. The risk of developing a viral infection can be reduced by practicing good hygiene, including washing hands regularly, caring for even minor cuts and scrapes using basic first aid techniques (especially keeping wounds clean), avoid contact with people who are ill and don’t share personal items.